Journal of veterinary clinical practice and pet care
Research

Screening Feline Blood Donors for Bartonella Henselae Infection: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Results

Eva Spada*
AFFILIATIONS
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Transfusion Unit (REV), University of Milan, Via G. Celoria, 10 – 20133 Milan, Italy.
Corresponding author (Address):
Dr Eva Spada, DVM Researcher, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Transfusion Unit (REV), University of Milan, Via G. Celoria, 10 – 20133 Milan, Italy; Ph: 039 0250318188, Fax: 0039 0250318171; E-mail: eva.spada@unimi.it
, Daniela Proverbio
AFFILIATIONS
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Transfusion Unit (REV), University of Milan, Via G. Celoria, 10 – 20133 Milan, Italy.
, Roberta Perego
AFFILIATIONS
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Transfusion Unit (REV), University of Milan, Via G. Celoria, 10 – 20133 Milan, Italy.
, Ilaria Canzi
AFFILIATIONS
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Transfusion Unit (REV), University of Milan, Via G. Celoria, 10 – 20133 Milan, Italy.
, Luciana Baggiani
AFFILIATIONS
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Transfusion Unit (REV), University of Milan, Via G. Celoria, 10 – 20133 Milan, Italy.
, Claudia De Maria
AFFILIATIONS
National Centre of Reference for Anaplasma, Babesia, Theileria and Rickettsia (CRABaRT), Experimental Zooprophylaxis Institute of Sicily (IZS), Via G. Marinuzzi, 3 - 90129 Palermo, Italy.
, Francesca Marino
AFFILIATIONS
National Centre of Reference for Anaplasma, Babesia, Theileria and Rickettsia (CRABaRT), Experimental Zooprophylaxis Institute of Sicily (IZS), Via G. Marinuzzi, 3 - 90129 Palermo, Italy.
, Santo Caracappa
AFFILIATIONS
National Centre of Reference for Anaplasma, Babesia, Theileria and Rickettsia (CRABaRT), Experimental Zooprophylaxis Institute of Sicily (IZS), Via G. Marinuzzi, 3 - 90129 Palermo, Italy.
Received Date:October 25, 2016Accepted Date: November 26, 2016 Published Date: November 29, 2016

doi:10.17303/jvcpc.2016.104

Citation:Eva Spada (2016) Screening Feline Blood Donors for Bartonella Henselae Infection: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Results. J Vet Clin Pract Pet Care 1: 1-9.

In order to minimize pathogen transmission, all blood donors should be appropriately screened for infectious agents. Screening for Bartonella spp. infection in feline blood donors is a recommended practice in veterinary blood banks across the world.

The aim of this study was to compare results of an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) in identifying Bartonella Henselae antibodies with the results of PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. DNA to establish the best IFAT cut off to identify non-bacteremic cats. A secondary aim of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinicopathologic factors that may be associated with Bartonella Henselae infection status. From a population of stray cats in Milan city, 82 serum samples were evaluated by IFAT for Bartonella Henselae antibodies and PCR was performed on 90 whole blood samples for amplification of Bartonella spp. DNA. A total of 14/82 (17.1%) samples were seropositive with an IFAT titer ≥1:64 (cut-off for infection). Bartonella spp. DNA was identified in 11/90 (12.2%) samples by PCR. Overall 20/90 (22.2%) infected cats were identified by either IFAT ≥1:64 and/or PCR-positive results. Hyperbetaglobulinemia (P=0.02) and originating from zone 2 of Milan city (P=0.03) were statistically associated with positive Bartonella infection status.

The overall IFAT sensitivity was 50.0%, specificity 87.5%, positive predictive value 35.7% and negative predictive value was 92.65%. The ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve was 0.747 (P=0.0032) and that an IFAT cut off<1:32 had the highest sensitivity in identifying Bartonella PCR-negative cats. When feline blood donors undergo serological screening for Bartonella Henselae infection an IFAT cut off <1:32 has the highest sensitivity for identifying non-bacteremic cats. However some serologically negative cats could be bacteremic and therefore screening of a feline blood donor using a combination of IFAT and PCR is recommended. Protein electrophoresis should be performed in all potential donor cats.

Abbreviation

AUC: Area Under Curve; BCS: Body Condition Score; CBC: Complete Blood Counts; CI: Confidence Interval; IFAT: Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody Test; NLR: Negative Likelihood Ratio; NPV: Negative Predictive Value; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction; PLR: Positive Likelihood Ratio; PPV: Positive Predictive Value; ROC: Receiving Operator Characteristic; TNR: Trap, Neuter and Release

Introduction

Feline transfusion medicine is a new and rapidly growing specialization in veterinary medicine and many cats are now included as blood donors in blood donation programs. The quality of feline blood collected for transfusion depends on many factors. In addition to immune-mediated reactions caused by infusion of allogeneic cells or proteins, adverse transfusion events can be caused by infectious agents from transfusion of contaminated blood obtained from an infected donor. Therefore, to minimize pathogen transmission, all blood donors should be appropriately screened for infectious agents. Testing is recommended for pathogens which meet at least three of the following criteria: (1) the pathogen has been documented to cause clinical infection in recipients after blood transmission, (2) the pathogen is capable of causing subclinical infection such that carriers might inadvertently be identified as healthy blood donors, (3) the pathogen can be detected using culture or molecular methods from the blood of an infected animal, and (4) the resultant infection in the recipient has the potential to cause life-threatening illness and be difficult to eliminate with antimicrobial drugs [1,2].

Bartonella Henselae infection in cats meets all these criteria. Bartonella can induce chronic and persistent infection following blood transfusion. Infection can be latent and induce unpredictable recurrence of bacteremia [3-5] and cause signs such as transient lethargy, fever, neurologic dysfunction, reproductive failure, and mild anemia [3-6]. Infected cats, may be highly bacteremic for several months with no significant clinical signs [7]. Although Bartonella infection is usually asymptomatic, or characterized by mild clinical signs in otherwise healthy cats, infection is a significant problem in immunocompromized individuals (such as recipients of blood transfusion), who get the most serious forms of bartonelloses. In addition, it has been shown in man that blood storage does not inactivate B. henselae which can remain viable in RBC units for up to 35 days at 4°C [8]. Finally no antibacterial therapy is available to clear the pathogen from cats.9,10 For all these reasons screening for Bartonella spp infection in feline blood donors is a recommended practice in veterinary blood banks around the world [1,2].

Detection of B. henselae in blood is the gold standard in diagnosis of Bartonella infection in cats [9,10] and the best method to identify bacteremic cats. However there are some limitations in the identification of Bartonella Henselae in blood by blood culture: a prolonged incubation period (4 to 6 weeks) [3,11], requirement for a specialized laboratory, possibility of false negative results because cultivation on media is very difficult (particularly when a low number of bacteria are present in peripheral blood at time of collection) or because the organism died in transport to the laboratory. In addition cats can be intermittently bacteremic showing wide fluctuations in the levels of bacteremia over time with intermittent negative culture [5,6]. To reduce false-negative test results, repeated blood cultures are required. All these factors limit the utility of bacterial culture as a diagnostic tool for routine screening of blood donors.

Molecular biology methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are more suitable for screening feline blood donors for Bartonella spp. infection. PCR is a specific and sensitive method and rapidly detects the presence of bartonellae in feline blood samples. However PCR assays require specialized laboratories, stringent quality control to avoid both false-positive and false-negative results, can be expensive to perform, and are currently not standardized among laboratories [9]. In addition, whilst true positive PCR assay results document the presence of microbial DNA, they do not prove the organism was alive and therefore capable of inducing infection in blood recipients. False-negative PCR assay results could occur because of intermittent bacteremia, previous use of antibiotics, lack of microbial DNA in the sample tested, or inhibitory or interfering substances in biologic specimens [9]. In addition, Economic factors in veterinary medicine often limit the testing of blood donor animals. Some tests such as PCR could be cost prohibitive for some blood donor programs.

The use of an Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT) as an alternate to PCR testing for Bartonella Henselae infection in feline blood donors has been included in the guidelines provided by European Advisory Board on Cat diseases (ABCD) group for minimizing risks of iatrogenic infectious complications in feline blood transfusion [2]. Serum antibody tests can be performed more quickly than blood culture and are inexpensive when compared to PCR. The aim of this study was to compare results of IFAT in identifying Bartonella Henselae antibodies and the results of PCR in amplifying Bartonella spp. DNA in order to identify the best IFAT cut off for identification of non-bacteremic cats. In addition, as clinical diagnosis of bartonellosis is complicated by poor understanding of the clinical spectrum of Bartonella infection, the second aim of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinicopathologic factors that may be associated with Bartonella Henselae infection status.

Materials and Methods
Animals and Blood Samples

Frozen serum and whole blood samples from previously identified seropositive cats [12] were used for this study. These samples were collected from cats between June and December 2014 during a survey on stray cats from Milan city in Northern Italy (Latitude: 45°27’51’’N, Longitude: 9°11’22’’E). The study population comprised 90 stray cats captured from courtyards in urban areas of Milan for a trap, neuter, and release (TNR) sterilization program performed as part of a national program to control stray pet populations under Italian National Law (law no. 281/1991). Interventions for the prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and control of diseases in stray feline populations are allowed under Lombardy regional law no. 33/2009; therefore, approval of the study design by an ethics committee was not necessary. In the previous study [12] serum samples were screened with an IFAT for Bartonella Henselae IgG antibody with the highest screened antibody titer of 1:128. In the present study the previous IFAT positive serum samples were analyzed for the end point IFAT titer for B. henselae. In addition whole blood samples of these 90 cats were analyzed by PCR to amplify Bartonella DNA. Data available for each cat were age (adult or young cats, based on dentition), gender, body condition score (BCS), colony of origin, clinical disorders diagnosed in the cats at the time of sample collection, complete blood counts (CBC), total serum protein and protein electrophoresis (albumin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulin concentrations).

Serological analysis

Bartonella Henselae IgG antibodies were detected using a commercially available IFAT kit (Biopronix Product Line, Agrolabo Spa, Italy) using slides prepared with fixed B. henselae-infected Hep-2 cells. All sera were diluted 1:32 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) and incubated on wells of the slides at 37°C in a humidity chamber for 30 min. The slides were rinsed twice in PBS, once in distilled water and air-dried. Each well of the slides was probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated sheep anti-Cat IgG (Biopronix-Agrolabo Spa, Italy) diluted 1:50 in Evans Blue solution and incubated at 37°C in a humidity chamber for 30 min. The slides were washed and dried as described above and examined with a fluorescence microscope. Sera were screened starting from 1:32 dilution, and any serum sample positive at that dilution was titrated in serial twofold dilutions to the endpoint titer. Cut-off value for B. henseale infection was ≥1:64 [11,13,14]. Negative and positive control samples were included on each slide. Slides were examined by fluorescence microscopy at 40× magnification (Axioskop, Zeiss, Germany), as previously described [6].

DNA extraction and PCR

DNA was extracted from feline blood samples using the High Pure Template Preparation Kit (EZNA tissue DNA kit, VWR-Omega Bio-Tek, USA), following the manufacturer’s instructions. The DNA samples were stored at -20°C until used as template in PCR protocols. The primers p24E and p12B, previously described [15], were used in this protocol to amplify a 296 bp fragment of the Bartonella 16S rRNA gene. The PCR amplification was performed in 25 μl of reaction mixtures containing 0.5 μl of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (GeneAmp dNTP Mix with dTTP, Applied Biosystems, Life Technologies, UK), 0.5 μl of each primer, 0.125 μl of Taq polymerase and 5 μl of PCR buffer (GoTaq G2 Polymerase, Promega), 16.375 μl of Nuclease free water and 2 μl of extracted DNA. PCR amplifications were performed in an automated thermal cycler (Thermal Cycler 2720, Applied Biosystems, UK) for 55 cycles. Each cycle consisted of denaturation at 94 °C for 15 seconds, annealing at 66°C for 15 s, extension at 72 °C for 15 s; an initial denaturation of 2 min at 95 °C and a final extension of 1 min at 72°C. PCR controls included a known positive DNA extract and a reagent blank. PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose (EURx) gel at 100 V for 45 min; the gel was stained with ethidium bromide and examined. The DNA molecular weight marker was 100 bp DNA Ladder (Promega, USA).

Statistical analysis

Cats were divided into 2 groups, Bartonella Henselae infected and non-infected with an IFAT titer ≥1:64 and/or PCR-positive result and an IFAT titer < 1:64 and/or PCR-negative result, respectively. Titers below 1:32 were considered as zero in the analysis. For univariate analyses, nonparametric tests (Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test) were used to test for associations between infective and non-infective status and putative explanatory factors or risk factor for infection status, such as age, gender, BCS, colony of origin, clinical, hematological and electrophoretic alterations. Associations between serological results and PCR status were tested with a Fisher exact test. For comparison of IFAT titers in PCR-positive and negative cats, non-parametric Mann–Whitney rank sum test was used. Calculation of sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), was performed for evaluation of IFAT results in comparison of PCR status as reference standard. To assess performance of the IFAT test at different cut offs, Se, Sp, NLR, PLR, NPV and PPV were calculated generating a receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curve using PCR as criterion-reference standard and a prevalence of Bartonella Henselae infection in stray cats of Milan city of 16% [13]. The performance of the IFAT test was analyzed by comparing the area under the curve (AUC), with 1 indicating a perfect test and 0.5 indicating results similar to chance. The area under the ROC curve provides a single numerical estimate of overall accuracy that can be interpreted as the average probability that an infected animal will have a positive test value compared to a non-infected animal. All statistical analysis were performed using MedCalc Statistical Software version 16.8.4 (MedCalc Software bvba, Ostend, Belgium; https://www.medcalc.org; 2016).

Results
Serology

The IFAT detected 23/82 (28.1%) serum samples with six different end point antibody-titers against B. henselae (Table 1). There were 14/82 (17.1%) seropositive samples with an IFAT titer ≥1:64 (cut-off for infection).

Polymerase chain reaction

Amplification of Bartonella spp. DNA by PCR was possible in 11/90 (12.2%) samples. Overall 20/90 (22.2%) cats were infected (i.e. IFAT ≥1:64 and/or PCR-positive results).

Risk factor study

Summary statistics relating to CBC and protein electrophoresis profile are reported in Table 2. The only categorical variables studied that showed a statistically significant association with Bartonella infection status (Table 3), were hyperbetaglobulinemia (P=0.02) and originating from zone 2 of Milan city (P=0.03).

Comparison between IFAT and PCR results

A total of 82 samples were analyzed by both IFAT and PCR, of these 14 (17.1%) were seropositive (IFAT titer ≥1:64) and 10 (12.2%) PCR-positive for amplification of Bartonella DNA. Five cats out of 82 (6.1%) were both PCR-positive and seropositive for B. henselae. Comparison between IFAT and PCR results is reported in Table 4.

All PCR-positive cats had antibody titers ≤1:256 and none had the highest antibody titer of 1:1024. Antibody titers were not significantly higher (Mann-Whitney test, P=0.06) in PCR-positive cats (highest IFAT titer, 1:256) than in PCR-negative cats (highest IFAT titer, 1:1024). A statistically significant association was found between IFAT titers <1:32 (P=0.004) and 1:128 (P=0.037) and PCR results (Table 1). Overall IFAT Se was 50.0% (95%CI 18.7-81.2), Sp 87.5% (95%CI 77.5-94.1), PLR 4.0 (95%CI 1.6-9.5), NLR 0.5 (95%CI 0.3-1.0), PPV 35.7% (95%CI 12.7-64.8) and NPV 92.6% (95%CI 83.6-97.5). The ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve was 0.747 (95% CI, 0.638 to 0.836, Standard error =0.0836, Z statistic =2.950) and was significantly higher (P=0.0032) than 0.5 (the value of area indicating no diagnostic utility) (Figure 1). With the PCR assay considered the gold standard in identifying bacteremic cats (PCR-positive samples), the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, PPV and NPV of the IFAT at different antibody titers is reported in Table 4. The ROC analysis identified that sensitivity of 100% was achieved at IFAT antibody titer of <1:32.

Discussion

Results of epidemiologic studies have indicated that the worldwide prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats ranges from 15% to 55%. In our study 11/90 cats (12.2%) were considered bacteremic, since they tested positive with the PCR assay specific for the Bartonella genus. This prevalence is lower than that suggested by worldwide data but higher than previous data on bacteremia in stray cats of Milan city in which prevalence was 5.4% [13]. IFAT was positive for B. henselae antibodies in 14/82 (17.1%) cats, but only 5 of these seropositive cats (35.7%) were considered bacteremic, since they were positive with the PCR assay specific for the Bartonella genus. Half of bacteremic cats were seronegative and all cats showed low anti-Bartonella antibody levels (all PCR-positive cats had IFAT antibody titers ≤1:256). In addition the highest PCR-positive prevalence (30.0%) was significantly associated with IFAT titers <1:32.These results suggest that, as previously demonstrated [16], serological testing, and in particular IFAT, appear to be of limited value for predicting bacteremia. In fact the IFAT had a low PPV (35.7%), and thus is of limited utility in distinguishing between bacteremic and non-bacteremic cats. However, the inability to detect B. henselae antibodies appears to be highly predictive of the absence of bacteremia (NPV = 92.7%), and therefore, serologically negative cats may be more suitable for inclusion in a feline blood donor program, bearing in mind that bacteremic cats could be serologically negative. These results are in agreement with previous studies, which also found that serology (IFAT or ELISA) is more useful for exclusion than for confirmation of the infection because of the low PPV (39–46%) compared with the good NPV (87–97%) [13,16-18]. Therefore cats with positive Bartonella spp. test results should not be selected as blood donors. Cats with negative Bartonella spp. test results are less likely to be harboring the organism and so may be safer donors than cats with positive Bartonella spp. test results [9].

ROC analysis found that ideal IFAT cut-off with higher NPV and sensitivity was at titer < 1:32, in practice this is cats with no anti Ig-Bartonella Henselae antibodies. No association was found between infection and clinical or hematological alterations and this is in accordance with previous studies in natural and experimentally infected cats [4,5,19,20], and in accordance with the fact that the natural infection is usually asymptomatic in cats, or characterized by mild clinical signs. These data support the hypothesis that cats, even if clinically healthy, can represent a reservoir for Bartonella-associated infection. Only one study found associations between antibodies to Bartonella spp. and lymphocytosis [14]. Hyperglobulinemia, primarily due to polyclonal gammopathy, was significantly associated with seropositivity to Bartonella species in one study [21] and this was partially in accordance with the significant hyperbetaglobulinemia that we found in our study in Bartonella spp. infected cats (P=0.02).

Increased globulin concentrations can be explained by the prolonged bacteremia that can be associated with infection by Bartonella spp. However in Bartonella infections both co-infections and serial reinfection have been documented in cats, both of which could contribute to development of polyclonal gammopathy in a cross sectional study such as this. Causality cannot be determined by analysis of cross-sectional data and it was not possible to test these cats a second time in this study. There were a number of limitations to this study. The primary limitation is the small sample size, which limits the statistical significance of results. The secondary limitation is the population studied. Free-roaming stray cats should never be considered as potential donors, as they are high-risk cats for blood-borne pathogens, as demonstrated by previous studies in stray cats in northern Italy [12,21-23]. Stray cats have a higher prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection than pet cats, mainly due to close contact between infected animals in large groups of cats [24]. Although stray cats represent a sentinel population for a variety of infections, because they receive no prophylaxis and are continually exposed to disease vectors, they provide limited data due to the absence of important anamnestic and clinical information. However stray cats undergoing sterilization in TNR program are usually young cats, and the prevalence of Bartonella Henselae bacteremia in young cats (< 1 year old) is usually higher than it is in adult cats [16,17]. Other than young age, recognized risk factors for Bartonella bacteremia in cats are infestation with fleas, outdoor lifestyle and a multicat environment [9,14,16,17]. Stray cats population are therefore high risk population for Bartonella spp. bacteremia and this could facilitate the finding of infected cats whose blood samples are useful in evaluation and comparison of diagnostic methods. In addition with flea infestations of peridomestic animals, stray colony cats contribute to the maintenance of these organisms in close proximity to household environments, and therefore give important information on the risk of Bartonella spp. infection for pet cats that share their environments.

Another limitation is that Bartonella was investigated only at the genus level, as amplicons derived from blood were not sequenced to distinguish between B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae PCR products and therefore information about the species infecting the study population was lacking. Cats have been recognized as a reservoir of Bartonella clarridgeiae [7]. However, it is likely that B. clarridgeiae is present at very low frequencies in the cat population in Italy [11,13,19]. Finally, other organisms such as Chlamydia spp. and Coxiella burnetii, have been associated with serological cross-reactions in people [26,27] and the same could happen in cats. It is known that antibodies against B. henselae generally cross react with B. clarridgeiae and other Bartonella spp. How these cross-reactions falsely influence the results of serological analysis derived from cats is not known.

Conclusion

The highest sensitivity for identification of Bartonella spp non-bacteremic cats for inclusion in a feline blood donor program is achieved by using an IFAT cut-off <1:32. However serologically negative cats may still be bacteremic for Bartonella spp. Therefore feline blood donors should be screened using both IFAT and PCR (as suggested as the minimum standard by the Consensus Statements of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine for the screening of feline blood donors for blood-borne pathogens [1]. Protein electrophoresis should be performed in all cats to be evaluated as blood donors.

Acknowledgement

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

The IFAT tests for Bartonella henselae infections were donated by Agrolabo spa, Scarmagno, Turin, Italy.

1Wardrop KJ, Birkenheuer A, Blais MC, Callan MB, Kohn B, et al. (2016) Update on Canine and Feline Blood Donor Screening for Blood-Borne Pathogens. J Vet Intern Med 30: 15-35.
2Pennisi MG, Hartmann K, Addie DD, Lutz H, Gruffydd-Jones T, et al. (2015) Blood transfusion in cats: ABCD guidelines for minimising risks of infectious iatrogenic complications . J Feline Med Surg 17: 588-593.
4Kordick DL, Brown TT, Shin K, Breitschwerdt EB (1999) Clinical and pathologic evaluation of chronic Bartonella Henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in cats. J Clin Microbiol 37: 1536-1547.
5Abbott RC, Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Floyd-Hawkins KA, Kikuchi Y, et al. (1997) Experimental and natural infection with Bartonella Henselae in domestic cats. Comparative Immunology, Microbiol and Infect Dis 20: 41-51.
6Kordick DL, Breitschwerdt EB (1997) Relapsing bacteremia after blood transmission of Bartonella Henselae to cats. Am J Vet Res 58: 492-497.
7Chomel BB, Boulouis HJ, Breitschwerdt EB (2004) Cat scratch disease and other zoonotic Bartonella infections. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224: 1270-1279.
8Magalhães RF, Pitassi LH, Salvadego M, de Moraes AM, Barjas-Castro ML, et al. (2008) Bartonella Henselae survives after the storage period of red blood cell units: Is it transmissible by transfusion? Transfus Med 18: 287-291.
9Brunt J, Guptill L, Kordick DL, Kudrak S, Lappin MR, et al. (2006) American Association of Feline Practitioners 2006 Panel report on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Bartonella spp. infections. J Feline Med Surg 8: 213-226.
10Pennisi MG, Marsilio F, Hartmann K, Lloret A, Addie D, et al. (2013) Bartonella Species Infection in Cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 15: 563-539.
11Brunetti E, Fabbi M, Ferraioli G, Prati P, Filice C, et al. (2013) Cat-scratch disease in Northern Italy: atypical clinical manifestations in humans and prevalence of Bartonella infection in cats. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 32: 531-534.
12Spada E, Canzi I, Baggiani L, Perego R, Vitale F, et al. (2016) Prevalence of Leishmania infantum and co-infections in stray cats in northern Italy. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 45: 53-58.
14Breitschwerdt EB, Levine JF, Radulovic S, et al. (2005) Bartonella Henselae and Rickettsia seroreactivity in a sick cat population from North Carolina. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 3: 287-302.
16Chomel BB, Abbott RC, Kasten RW, Floyd-Hawkins KA, Kass PH, et al. (1995) Bartonella Henselae Prevalence in Domestic Cats in California-Risk-Factors and Association Between Bacteremia and Antibody-Titers. J Clin Microbiol 33: 2445-2450.
17Guptill L, Wu CC, HogenEsch H, Slater LN, Glickman N, et al.( 2004 ) Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Henselae Infections in Pet Cats in Four Regions of the United States. J Clin Microbiol 42: 652-659.
18Ebani VV, Bertelloni F, Fratini F (2012) Occurrence of Bartonella Henselae types I and II in Central Italian domestic cats. Res Vet Sci 93: 63-66.
19Pennisi MG, La Camera E, Giacobbe L, Orlandella BM, Lentini V, et al. (2010) Molecular detection of Bartonella Henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in clinical samples of pet cats from Southern Italy. Res Vet Sci 88: 379-384.
20Whittemore JC, Hawley JR, Radecki SV, Steinberg JD, Lappin MR (2012) Bartonella Species Antibodies and Hyperglobulinemia in Privately Owned Cats. J Vet Intern Med 26: 639-644.
22Spada E, Proverbio D, Galluzzo P2, Della Pepa A, Bagnagatti De Giorgi G et al. (2014) Prevalence of haemoplasma infections in stray cats in northern Italy. ISRN Microbiol 2014: 8.
23Spada E, Proverbio D, Galluzzo P, Della Pepa A, Perego R, et al. (2014) Molecular study on selected vector-borne infections in urban stray colony cats in northern Italy. J Feline Med Surg 16: 684-688.
24Boulouis HJ, Chang CC, Henn JB, Kasten RW, Chomel BB, et al. (2005) Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections. Vet Res 36: 383-410.
25Maurin M, Eb F, Etienne J, et al. (1997) Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella and Chlamydia species: Implications for diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 35: 2283-2287.
Figures at a glance
Figure 1
Tables at a glance
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4

top